Bioenergia, risultati e prospettive a BioEnergy

di Michele Costanzo 53

La produzione di bioenergia è in costante crescita e rappresenta ormai una aliquota importante della produzione nazionale. A CremonaFiere tre saloni esplorano il futuro della bioeconomia italiana.

Bioenergia BioEnergy
La politica energetica italiana ha abbracciato ormai da diversi anni un modello di diversificazione delle fonti che ha notevolmente modificato sistemi produttivi e fonti impiegate. Se ancora oggi la maggior parte dell’energia prodotta deriva da fonti non rinnovabili, una aliquota sempre maggiore è ormai prodotta da fonti rinnovabili e contribuisce a soddisfare una buona fetta del fabbisogno nazionale. Tra le rinnovabili un rapido sviluppo ha caratterizzato il settore della bioenergia che negli ultimi anni ha visto una crescita notevole sia per un numero di impianti che per produzione di energia.

A CremonaFiere tre saloni per parlare di bioenergia

Fino a domani 22 aprile CremonaFiere ospita tre saloni sul tema della bioeconomia e della bioenergia. Alla sesta edizione di BioEnergy Italy si affiancano la seconda edizione della Green Chemistry Conference and Exhibition e la seconda edizione di Food Waste Management Conference. Tema di fondo che accomuna i tre saloni ed i numerosi eventi in programma resta l’economia circolare, un modello virtuoso che pone la sostenibilità dei processi produttivi come base per un nuovo sviluppo economico e tecnologico. Nell’ottica dell’economia circolare le materie prime vanno riutilizzate anche più volte reimmettendole nel ciclo produttivo sia in forma diretta che indiretta.

La produzione di energia elettrica in impianti a bioenergia rientra in pieno nelle logiche dell’economia circolare. Sostanze naturali o di scarto vengono impiegati sotto forma di biogas, bioliquidi e solidi per produrre nuova energia che può poi essere reimmessa nel ciclo produttivo ed utilizzata in nuovi contesti.

La stessa attività di riciclo dei materiali alimenta costantemente un sistema di economia circolare permettendo il riutilizzo di materie prime che altrimenti andrebbero irrimediabilmente perse. Al modello dell’economia circolare guardano con grande attenzione anche le istituzioni europee che di recente sono intervenute a sostegno del settore con fondi complessivi per oltre sei miliardi di euro. L’economia europea dipende in molti campi da materie prime che sono limitate nella disponibilità e nelle fonti. Riutilizzare i materiali permette quindi di ridurre il fabbisogno di nuova materia prima e contribuisce anche a ridurre la dipendenza delle industrie europee da fornitori esterni. Rifiuti solidi urbani, imballaggi e materiali di scarto della produzione sono alcuni dei settori per cui l’Unione ha fissato obiettivi di recupero e riutilizzo molto ambiziosi da raggiungere nei prossimi anni.

Anche l’Italia si muove in direzione analoga tanto che già nel così detto ‘Collegato ambientale‘ sono state introdotte nuove norme in materia di biogas e biomasse che permetteranno l’uso di alcuni sottoprodotti della lavorazione dello zucchero e degli oli vegetali.

Quanto vale la bioenergia in Italia

Tra i temi di BioEnergy hanno ovviamente una grande rilevanza i dati sulla produzione di energia elettrica in impianti a bioenergia. In Italia la produzione energetica da fonti rinnovabili ha ormai superato il 40% del totale con un peso crescente anche per la produzione da biogas, bioliquidi e rifiuti solidi. Per comprendere meglio le grandezze in gioco si possono prendere a riferimento i dati di Terna sulla produzione di energia elettrica in Italia aggiornati al 2014.

La produzione lorda di energia elettrica in Italia nel 2014 è stata pari a 279.828,5 GWh. Nello stesso anno la produzione da fonti rinnovabili è stata pari a 120.678,9 GWh equivalenti al 43% circa della produzione totale. In ordine di rilevanza le diverse fonti rinnovabili forniscono questi contributi:

  • Idroelettrica: 58.545,4 GWh
  • Fotovoltaica: 22.306,4 GWh
  • Bioenergie: 18.732,4 GWh
  • Eolica: 15.178,3 GWh
  • Geotermica: 5.916,3 GWh

Come si può facilmente verificare la produzione di bioenergia rappresenta il 15,5% del totale delle rinnovabili e circa il 6,7% della produzione totale di energia elettrica. Valori molto importanti quindi anche in termini assoluti ed in grado di confrontarsi con altre fonti rinnovabili su cui si è molto investito negli ultimi anni. In questo senso si deve osservare come la bioenergia sia la terza fonte tra le rinnovabili italiane con volumi di produzione superiori all’eolico.

Particolarmente significativo è anche il trend di crescita registrato dalla bioenergia tra il 2010 ed il 2014 (v. grafico). In soli 5 anni la produzione lorda è passata dai 9.440,1 GWh del 2010 ai 18.732,4 ora del 2014 andando sostanzialmente a raddoppiare i volumi immessi nella rete nazionale. Di pari passo è aumentata anche la consistenza degli impianti che sempre nel 2014 ha raggiunto un totale di 2.482 unità in grado di garantire una potenza installata lorda di oltre 4 milioni di kW (4.043.636 kW per la precisione).

Poco più della metà della bioenergia generata nel 2014 (9.909,4 GWh) è stata destinata alla produzione di sola energia elettrica con contributi quasi equamente ripartiti tra biomasse e rifiuti solidi (3.287,5 GWh), biogas (3.537,8 GWh) e bioliquidi (3.084,2 GWh). La bioenergia utilizzata invece per produrre contemporaneamente sia energia elettrica che calore è stata pari a 8.823,0 GWh ripartita tra biomasse e rifiuti solidi (2.905,4 GWh), biogas (4.660,7 GWh) e bioliquidi (1.256,9 GWh).

Per macro aree geografiche la maggiore produzione di bioenergia arriva dall’Italia settentrionale con 11.822,4 GWh; seguono l’Italia meridionale ed insulare con 5.191,7 GWh e l’Italia centrale con 1.718,3 GWh. Tra le singole regioni invece è la Lombardia a registrare la maggiore produzione di bioenergia con 4.249,3 GWh seguita dall’Emilia Romagna (2.759,0 GWh) e dal Veneto (1.898,7 GWh).

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