Cambiamenti climatici, adesso a migrare sono gli alberi

di Paola P. 58

alberi neve

Prima erano soltanto gli uccelli che migravano. Poi con i mutamenti climatici hanno cominciato a migrare altre specie. Successivamente è toccato all’uomo, “sfrattato” dalle condizioni di vita divenute impossibili. Fino ad arrivare alla vegetazione di mezzo mondo. I cambiamenti nella temperatura sono così netti che anche gli alberi hanno deciso di migrare verso posti più accoglienti.

Ne è convinta Melanie Harsch, ricercatrice del Bio-Protection Research Center della Lincoln University, in Nuova Zelanda, la quale ha notato, seguendo dai provenienti da 166 siti di foreste e boschi di tutto il mondo, che dal 1900 ad oggi quasi tutti hanno subito degli spostamenti verso climi più favorevoli.

In particolare ciò avviene perché non è tanto la fuga dal troppo caldo a far spostare le vegetazioni, ma gli inverni meno rigidi. In particolare si è notato come nel Sud-Est asiatico diverse piantagioni hanno cominciato a spostarsi verso la Siberia, zona considerata inospitale fino a qualche anno fa, ma che ora, grazie ad inverni con la colonnina di mercurio che non scende troppo sotto lo zero, può ospitare alberi e piante che fino ad ora non avevano mai messo le radici in queste zone.

Spiega Luca Mercalli, presidente della Società Meteorologica Italiana a Repubblica che:

Per capire cosa spinge i limiti di vegetazione a spostarsi non basta schematizzare tutto nel binomio caldo/freddo poiché si tratta di meccanismi influenzati da un’infinità di fattori. Il melo se non ha abbastanza freddo d’inverno, non fruttifica. Per questa pianta l’inverno troppo mite può quindi essere un problema. Il legame tra aumento delle temperature e l’avanzamento della vegetazione è un dato di fatto, ma i fattori di controllo sono moltissimi, comprensibili fino in fondo solo agli addetti ai lavori.

Infatti è stato rilevato che negli ultimi 100 anni su 166 siti controllati, in 111 la temperatura era aumentata di 1,3 gradi. Questo ha portato allo spostamento in ben 87 siti che finora non avevano mai ospitato alcuna vegetazione. Ma lo spostamento non ha riguardato tutti gli alberi, ma solo una parte, quella cioè che aveva bisogno di inverni meno rigidi, o di estati meno calde. Questo perché alcune piante rischiano di morire se si supera una certa soglia di congelamento, mentre per altre avviene il processo opposto, tanto che alcuni alberi sono saliti di quota nel corso dei secoli.

Fonte: [Repubblica]

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