Congresso di Cancun: le conseguenze dell’accordo

di Marco Mancini 48

Anche se i colloqui sul clima di Cancun sono sembrati in una situazione di stallo che si è protratta per la quasi totalità delle due settimane che è durata la conferenza, nell’ultima notte è stato finalmente raggiunto un nuovo accordo sul cambiamento climatico. Secondo Greenpeace però tale accordo è servito solo a salvare i colloqui delle Nazioni Unite, ma non per salvare il clima.

In base al testo, che non è ancora legalmente vincolante, i tagli drastici alle emissioni di carbonio dovrebbero mantenere l’aumento della temperatura globale sotto i 2° C, e si richiede che eventuali rafforzamenti possano portare tale obiettivo ad 1,5° C. Tuttavia l’importo totale delle riduzioni di emissioni attualmente stabilite sono insufficienti per soddisfare tale obiettivo, con circa il 15% delle riduzioni previste, rispetto ai livelli del 1990 entro il 2020, quando il 40% o più sarebbe necessario. Gli impegni attuali ci porteranno ad un incremento delle temperature di circa 3-4° C, a metà strada di quello che Bill McKibben ha descritto come un futuro “impossibile e miserabile”.

L’unico aspetto positivo dell’accordo è che sembra che i “grandi della Terra” abbiano superato l’impasse ideologico, specialmente della Cina e dell’India, le nazioni che emettono più carbonio e pertanto devono avere obiettivi di riduzione delle emissioni come tutti gli altri, e non trattamenti di favore come accadde con il Protocollo di Kyoto.

Molto importante è stata la conferma del Fondo da 30 miliardi di dollari istituito da 24 nazioni sviluppate e in via di sviluppo, da destinare ai Paesi poveri per aiutarli nella mitigazione e nell’adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici. Inoltre, l’accordo supporta maggiori sforzi per ridurre la deforestazione, pur riconoscendo che i diritti dei popoli indigeni hanno bisogno di essere protetti.

In fin dei conti, rispetto al disastro dello scorso anno, un enorme passo in avanti c’è stato, e i colloqui dell’ONU restano l’unico strumento efficace per intraprendere quel tipo di azione politica collettiva a livello globale necessaria per evitare cambiamenti climatici catastrofici. Bisognerebbe che tutti la pensassero come il presidente messicano Felipe Calderon, uno di quelli che stanno mettendo in luce i progressi sul clima, il quale ha dichiarato, in chiusura dei colloqui:

A volte penso che a questo proposito non riusciamo a capire che siamo tutti passeggeri della stessa nave, dello stesso aereo, o dello stesso veicolo. I nostri aerei non hanno più il pilota. È successo qualcosa in cabina. Tutti i passeggeri sono responsabili dell’aeromobile, e stiamo litigando se la colpa è di quelli in classe turistica o di quelli seduti davanti in prima classe, mentre l’aereo continua a precipitare […] Credo, amici, che qualcuno debba prendere il controllo del velivolo.

Peccato che non tutti la pensino così.

[Fonte: Treehugger]

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