Filtri biologici per acquario: come funzionano e quali scegliere

di Redazione 48

acquarioI filtri biologici per acquari si basano sull’azione di microrganismi e materiali filtranti per assorbire le impurità, esattamente come in natura. Un sistema di filtraggio biologico prevede il lavoro combinato tra un filtro, organismi viventi (piante e/o invertebrati) e componenti naturali (sabbia, rocce e ghiaia), presenti all’interno della vasca.

Come è composto il filtro

La parte meccanica del sistema di filtro biologico è di solito composta da più materiali, cioè da una parte in carbone, una in spugna o fibra di perlon ed una in cannolicchi di ceramica o vetro sinterizzato. Questi ultimi sono la parte in cui crescono le colonie di batteri buoni che vanno a purificare l’acqua nel suo passaggio attraverso il filtro. Siccome si tratta di elementi molto delicati, la manutenzione è fondamentale e va eseguita costantemente e con attenzione al fine di non danneggiare l’ambiente acquatico. Sul sito Aquashopping è disponibile un’ampia selezione di filtri.

Ghiaia: la base della longevità di un acquario

Il filtro, benché fondamentale per assicurare un ambiente sano e salutare, non è l’unica componente necessaria per un filtraggio biologico. Una parte importante viene svolta anche dalla ghiaia, nella quale vivono i microrganismi che si occupano di distruggere scarti ed impurità nell’acquario. Per realizzare un buon filtro biologico, è opportuno avviare l’acquario con la ghiaia e le piante, ma senza pesci, per circa due settimane. I pesci vanno aggiunti successivamente, due o tre ogni due settimane. Questo procedimento permette ai microrganismi di stabilirsi e di iniziare gradualmente il lavoro di pulizia.

Piante, invertebrati, rocce e sabbia: altri elementi di filtraggio

Le piante rappresentano un’implementazione importante per un sistema di filtraggio biologico, tanto che gli esperti consigliano di dedicare ad esse una parete dell’acquario, per farle crescere indisturbate. È possibile scegliere ovviamente tra numerose piante, molte delle quali esteticamente bellissime, basandosi sul tipo di pesci che si vogliono inserire nell’acquario e sulle loro attitudini.
Chi possiede un acquario marino può considerare la possibilità di aggiungere le rocce vive, utili per mantenere elevata la qualità dell’acqua e, di conseguenza, la salute dei pesci. Si possono aggiungere anche invertebrati come le lumachine di mare, i gamberetti ed i granchi ma tuttavia è bene stare molto attenti, perché richiedono una dieta specifica e possono rappresentare un succoso pasto per alcuni pesci.

Pulizia del filtro biologico

Periodicamente, a seconda di cosa consigliano le aziende produttrici, bisogna effettuare la manutenzione del filtro pulendo la spugna (o la fibra di perlon) frequentemente sotto l’acqua corrente e poi sostituirla all’occorrenza, stessa operazione da fare con il carbone mentre i cannolicchi non andranno mai puliti e/o sostituiti al fine di non distruggere la colonia batterica insediata in essi. Ci può volere anche un mese per ripristinarla.

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