Il Deposito nazionale dei rifiuti radioattivi: cos’è, a cosa serve, dove sarà

di Luc 76

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Nel corso degli ultimi giorni, la campagna informativa riguardante il nuovo deposito nazionale sta avendo un ampio risalto sia online che su giornali e televisioni, grazie ad un apposito spot trasmesso sulle principali reti.

Prima di tutto, cerchiamo di capire di cosa si tratti: il deposito nazionale non è altro che una grande struttura in cui saranno collocati in totale sicurezza i vari rifiuti radioattivi che vengono prodotti sul territorio italiano, sia che provengano dallo smantellamento delle centrali nucleari esistenti (che sono quattro e tutte chiuse: a Caorso, Garigliano, Latina e Trino), sia che derivino da altre attività, come ad esempio quelle in ambito medicinale, prodotti da delle applicazioni diagnostiche (usate per effettuare la diagnosi di svariate patologie, ma anche per delle tecniche come l’imaging molecolare) ed altre terapeutiche (come le terapie che sfruttano dei radiofarmaci per eliminare le cellule cancerogene, in cui è presente una percentuale minima di materiale radioattivo, chiamato radionuclide), ma anche applicazioni in ambito di ricerca. Infine, il deposito nazionale ospiterà anche i rifiuti radioattivi prodotti in ambito industriale, provenienti dall’irraggiamento, dalla radiometria, dai generatori di corrente e dalla gammagrafia industriale.

Questo deposito, in poche parole, comprende tutte quelle strutture in cui si potranno sistemare in via definitiva i rifiuti a bassa e media attività, così come altre strutture per permettere lo stoccaggio momentaneo di rifiuti ad alta attività, che poi dovranno essere spostati all’interno di un deposito geologico collocato sotto terra.

Non solo un deposito, dal momento che in questa zona verrà realizzato anche un parco tecnologico, che ospiterà diverse attività di ricerca in merito all’organizzazione ed allo stoccaggio di rifiuti radioattivi.

Il deposito nazionale rispetterà anche il territorio, dato che dopo essere stato riempito dai rifiuti verrà ricoperto da una sorta di collina del tutto artificiale, che sarà ovviamente impermeabile.

La superficie occupata dal deposito nazionale dovrebbe aggirarsi intorno ai 150 ettari di terreno, di cui circa 40 saranno destinati al parco e 110 al deposito vero e proprio. La realizzazione in territorio italiano di questo deposito è prevista da una direttiva dell’UE, per cui rifiuti radioattivi devono essere smaltiti all’interno della medesima nazione che li produce.

Come si conservano i rifiuti e quale sito verrà scelto?

Il primo passo è di inserire i rifiuti radioattivi all’interno di particolari contenitori metallici, che verranno a loro volta collocati all’interno di appositi moduli, realizzati in calcestruzzo speciale e di grosse dimensioni, che verranno infine posizionati all’interno delle celle, ovvero circa novanta strutture in calcestruzzo armato.

Per quanto riguarda i rifiuti radioattivi ad alta attività, un altro complesso di strutture consentirà di stoccarne ben 15 mila metri cubi: verranno conservati qui non oltre cinquant’anni e poi verranno spostati in un deposito geologico sotto terra.

In questo modo, le strutture conserveranno tali rifiuti per circa 300 anni, fino al momento in cui non avranno alcun più effetto nocivo sulla salute degli uomini.

Il deposito nazionale offrirà anche ben 1500 posti di lavoro per un cantiere che dovrebbe durare quattro anni, mentre successivamente saranno 700 gli addetti adibiti al suo mantenimento e gestione.

Per quanto riguarda la localizzazione, esistono dei criteri che sono stati sanciti da ISPRA (ovvero l’istituto Superiore per la Protezione e Ricerca Ambientale) che permettono di giungere ad un elenco di zone che, in via preliminare, potrebbero avere le carte in regola per ospitare la costruzione del deposito nazionale: qualche mese fa, ISPRA ha ricevuto dalla Sogin la mappa dei siti potenziali.

Si tratta di criteri di esclusione e di approfondimento: i primi consentono di evitare di considerare quelle zone che non garantiscono totale sicurezza ed affidabilità e i secondi permettono di valutare con maggiore rigore e specificità quelle aree che hanno superato il primo “esame”.

Secondo la procedura ordinaria, dopo il via libera da ISPRA e dal Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico e da quello dell’ambiente, Sogin deve diffondere la proposta fatta da CNAPI (la Carta Nazionale delle Aree Potenzialmente Idonee) e da questo momento partirà il percorso di consultazione pubblica che, in due mesi, porterà all’individuazione dei soggetti previsti dalla legge.

L’ultimo parere vincolante in merito all’individuazione del sito previsto per la costruzione del deposito nazionale spetta ad ISPRA, che dovrà dare conferma della sua idoneità e successivamente, i lavori vedranno il via nel 2019 e, di conseguenza, l’apertura dovrebbe coincidere con il 2024, ovvero cinque anni dopo.

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