Pannelli fotovoltaici, LG investe per triplicare la produzione

di Michele Costanzo 58

Pannelli fotovoltaici LG
Realizzare pannelli fotovoltaici che siano al tempo stesso più efficienti ed affidabili nel tempo. È questa la sfida che attende nei prossimi anni il settore dell’energia solare chiamato a soddisfare una domanda che in tanti pronosticano in crescita sostenuta nei prossimi anni. LG Electronics, colosso coreano dell’elettronica, ha annunciato di recente un ambizioso piano di investimenti che porterà nel giro di pochi anni a triplicare la produzione di pannelli solari per uso civile.

LG investe 435 milioni a Gumi

Con l’obiettivo dichiarato di rafforzare la posizione dell’azienda nel settore dell’energia solare, LG ha in programma investimenti per 435 milioni di dollari destinati ad ampliare la capacità produttiva dello stabilimento di Gumi in Corea del Sud. Alle otto linee di produzione già esistenti, LG intende affiancare altre sei nuove linee all’interno di un progetto sottoscritto con l’amministrazione locale di Gumi. Dall’espansione del sito produttivo LG si attende un importante incremento della capacità produttiva che dal valore attuale di 1 GW passerà a 1,8 GW già nel 2018 per arrivare a 3 GW nel 2020. Alla fine di questo percorso la capacità prodotta risulterà sostanzialmente triplicata e sufficiente a soddisfare il fabbisogno di energia di circa un milione di abitazioni.

LG opera nel settore dell’energia solare fin dal 1995 lavorando sia sul fronte della ricerca che su quello della produzione. Il grande stabilimento di Gumi è attivo dal 2009 ed è specializzato nella produzione di pannelli fotovoltaici. La società si occupa anche di sistemi di immagazzinamento (storage) dell’energia e di illuminotecnica. Tra il 2013 ed il 2015 il produttore ha presentato sul mercato nuove tecnologie per migliorare l’efficienza e la stabilità prestazionale dei pannelli solari.

L’efficienza dei pannelli fotovoltaici

Nei pannelli fotovoltaici l’energia incidente dovuta alla luce solare viene convertita in energia elettrica. Questo processo di conversione è storicamente caratterizzato da un basso rendimento. La percentuale di energia della luce solare che si riesce a convertire in energia elettrica è cioè limitata da dispersioni ed inefficienza difficili da contrastare. Se nelle ricerche più avanzate si è riusciti a raggiungere un rendimento dell’ordine del 35-40%, nei pannelli solari per uso civile si raggiungono livelli più bassi che a seconda della tecnica produttiva possono oscillare orientativamente tra il 10 ed il 20%.

Proprio LG nello scorso anno ha introdotto i nuovi moduli solari NeON 2 con tecnologia Cello. Queste unità sono costruite con una nuova struttura interna basata sull’impiego di 12 fili interni per la diffusione della corrente elettrica. Questa soluzione da un lato migliora l’assorbimento della luce e dall’altro riduce la dispersione elettrica offrendo un migliore rendimento in tutte le condizioni di lavoro. In concreto soluzioni di questo genere permettono di aumentare la produzione dei pannelli fotovoltaici a parità di superficie occupata o viceversa produrre la medesima quantità di energia elettrica occupando una superficie minore. La progressiva riduzione delle dimensioni degli impianti solari è un fattore che inciderà sull’adozione su vasta scala di questa tecnologia. Con il progressivo miglioramento del rendimento dei moduli solari sarà possibile impiegare sistemi fotovoltaici anche per gli edifici con una ridotta superficie esposta all’irraggiamento solare.

Stabilità dei pannelli fotovoltaici nel tempo

I pannelli fotovoltaici realizzati tramite semiconduttori (silicio nella maggior parte dei casi) vanno in contro ad un progressivo decadimento della potenza nel tempo. Le norme tecniche richiedono ai produttori di offrire livelli garantiti di potenza per un periodo di almeno 20 anni secondo due fasi consecutive. Un modulo solare deve garantire una potenza almeno pari al 90% del valore nominale per i primi dieci anni, ed una potenza di almeno l’80% sul dato nominale nei successivi dieci anni.

Anche in questo aspetto gli sviluppi più recenti hanno permesso di contenere il calo di potenza dei pannelli fotovoltaici linearizzandolo nel tempo. I pannelli LG NeON 2 che abbiamo ricordato anche in precedenza offrono un picco di potenza del 98% nel primo anno per poi degradare molto lentamente ed in maniera lineare nel tempo. Grazie a questa tecnologia produttiva a 25 anni dall’entrata in servizio un pannello solare può offrire ancora l’83,6% della potenza iniziale. Anche in questo caso i miglioramenti ottenuti sono da ricerca nella struttura costruttiva del pannello che riesce e minimizzare gli effetti della naturale usura del silicio.

Il nuovo fotovoltaico

Se il futuro prossimo dell’energia solare è ancora strettamente legato ai tradizionali pannelli fotovoltaici in silicio, in un’ottica di più lungo periodo altre tecnologie potrebbero affermarsi su larga scala. Nelle così dette ‘celle fotovoltaiche a concentrazione‘ i normali pannelli solari sono abbinati a lenti a concentrazione. Le lenti raccolgono l’energia solare concentrandola quindi sull’area attiva del pannello ed ottenendo come conseguenza un notevole miglioramento in termini di rendimento e produzione di energia per unità di superficie.

Ancora più recenti sono gli studi sul fotovoltaico organico in cui il materiale semiconduttore è sostituito da pigmenti organici teoricamente più economici da produrre su vasta scala.

Photo Credits | LG

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