PM10 sopra i limiti, blocchi a Milano e Napoli

di Michele Costanzo 60

PM10 Lombardia
In molte città italiane torna l’emergenza smog che già alla fine dello scorso anno aveva suscitati molto allarme. Negli ultimi giorni in molte aree del Paese la concentrazione delle sostanze inquinanti nell’aria è tornata su livelli di guardia complice la prolungata fase di stabilità meteorologica. Preoccupano in particolare le concentrazioni di PM10 e PM2.5 (particolato) che in diverse città sono già da diversi giorni oltre i limiti previsti dalla legge.

In Lombardia PM10 sopra i limiti da 11 giorni

Condizioni della qualità dell’area particolarmente preoccupanti in Lombardia dove per 11 giorni consecutivi sono state superate le concentrazioni massime di PM10. Come spiega in dettaglio il sito dell’ARPA Lombardia, la soglia dei 50 µg/mc è stata più volte superata in gran parte della regione con punte di concentrazione che hanno raggiunto valori anche tripli al limite definito dalle norme. Nel solo mese di gennaio in molte stazioni di rilevamento della Lombardia è stato già consumato un terzo del limite di sforamenti ammesso in un anno. Va infatti ricordato che il Decreto Legislativo 13 agosto 2010 n.155 fissa in 35 il numero di giorni in un anno in cui è possibile superare la soglia dei 50 µg/mc nella concentrazione di PM10.

A Milano si sono rilevate punte di concentrazione del PM10 particolarmente elevate. Il 30 gennaio scorso ad esempio la stazione di via Pascal ha registrato un picco di 153 µg/mc. Valori di poco inferiori sono stati rilevati nella stazione del Verziere (136 µg/mc) e nella stazione di via Senato(123 µg/mc). La situazione di Milano si ripresenta anche in altre aree della Lombardia con valori massimi di 172 µg/mc a Monza, 170 µg/mc a Bergamo, 144 µg/mc a Lodi, 146 µg/mc a Brescia, 186 µg/mc a Cremona , 187 µg/mc a Mantova e 264 µg/m³ nella stazione di Osio. Unico capoluogo della regione con livelli di particolato inferiori a limiti di legge è stato Sondrio (48 µg/mc). Dall’inizio dell’anno il limite sulle concentrazioni di PM10 è stato superato per 15 giorni a Milano e per 14 a Brescia.

In questa situazione di emergenza il Comune di Milano ha previsto l’attivazione da lunedì 1 febbraio del Protocollo antismog della Città metropolitana previsto in caso di superamento dei limiti per più di dieci giorni consecutivi. Il protocollo prevede anzitutto limitazioni alla circolazione dei veicoli diesel Euro 3 senza filtro FAP. È inoltre prevista l’introduzione di limitazioni anche per il riscaldamento: abbassamento della temperatura di 1 grado (da 20° a 19°) con contemporanea riduzione di 2 ore (da 14 a 12) della durata di accensione degli impianti.

In Veneto situazione critica, a Roma giornata senza auto

Livelli preoccupanti per l’inquinamento atmosferico negli ultimi giorni sono sono registrati anche in Veneto con sforamenti ripetuti sui limiti del PM10. Il 29 gennaio l’ARPA Veneto segnalava in particolare come in tutte le province della regione con l’eccezione di Verona e Belluno fossero stati superati i 10 giorni consecutivi di superamento della soglia di 50 µg/mc. A partire dal 24 gennaio in particolare in gran parte della regione si sono registrate concentrazioni di PM10 superiori ai 100 µg/mc favorite dalla scarsa ventilazione dell’area e dall’assenza si precipitazioni significativa.

Anche nell’area di Roma si sono registrate nei scorsi giorni alte concentrazioni di PM10. L’amministrazione comunale della Capitale ha disposto per domenica 31 gennaio una giornata antismog con blocco della circolazione veicolare. L’iniziativa ha coinvolto tutti i veicoli con omologazione fino ad Euro 5 dalle 7.30 alle 12.30 e dalle 16.30 alle 20.30. Oltre ai veicoli più moderni con omologazione Euro 6, la circolazione è stata aperta ai veicoli meno inquinati dotati di alimentazione a metano, gpl, o ibrida. Per favorire la mobilità nell’area urbana il Comune di Roma ha anche previsto un rafforzamento dei mezzi pubblici (bus e metropolitana).

La misura adotta a Roma è stata assunta in via cautelativa per contribuire al miglioramento della qualità dell’aria e per tutelare la salute dei cittadini. A Roma è attivo un progetto ‘antismog’ che prevede 4 giornate senza auto da pianificare tra novembre e marzo.

Blocco del traffico a Napoli

Anche a Napoli i livelli elevati di Particolato PM10 hanno attivato procedure d’emergenza in particolare per quanto riguarda il traffico veicolare. Anche nel capoluogo campano la soglia dei 50 µg/mc nella concentrazione di PM10 è stata superata più volte ed in diverse centraline di rilevamento portando l’amministrazione comunale ad attivare protocolli anti-inquinamento. In particolare per 6 giorni dall’1 al 6 gennaio a Napoli è previsto il blocco della circolazione 9.30 alle ore 12.30 e dalle ore 14.30 alle ore 19.30. Il provvedimento estende le limitazioni già previste dal comune fino al 31 marzo in considerazione delle previsioni meteorologiche che prevedono condizioni sfavorevoli per la qualità dell’aria. Il provvedimento di limitazione al traffico prevede comunque diverse deroghe per i veicoli meno inquinanti.

Da nord a sud la nuova emergenza smog sta attivando protocolli speciali che come abbiamo visto intervengono principalmente sulla circolazione veicolare. Provvedimenti d’emergenza in attesa che le condizioni meteo diano un contributo all’abbattimento degli inquinanti nell’aria.

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