Teleriscaldamento

di Marco Mancini 41

Teleriscaldamento

Il teleriscaldamento è una forma di riscaldamento dell’acqua che avviene in una centrale e permette all’acqua, già calda, di raggiungere le abitazioni. A differenza del riscaldamento classico in cui l’acqua circola fredda nelle tubature e, una volta raggiunta l’abitazione, viene riscaldata sul posto, con il teleriscaldamento l’acqua viene riscaldata una volta sola e poi arriva già calda dal rubinetto. Questa pratica, sempre più diffusa fuori dall’Italia, ed in piccoli esperimenti anche all’interno dei nostri confini, serve per risparmiare grandissime quantità di energia.

Quando nella centrale che produce l’acqua calda si produce anche elettricità, si parla di cogenerazione. Il teleriscaldamento, per essere attuato, ha bisogno di tubature speciali, più grandi di quelle tradizionali, che garantiscono una minima dispersione di calore. Dalla centrale infatti l’acqua parte ad una temperatura di 80-90° C (120° se surriscaldata), per raggiungere poi le abitazioni alla temperatura scelta. Nei tubi può anche passare del vapore che può avere lo stesso effetto sull’acqua domestica.

Già il teleriscaldamento in sé comporta un risparmio energetico notevole, visto che anziché accendere in ogni casa la caldaia, ne si accende una sola di grandi dimensioni per tutti; ma ciò che rende il teleriscaldamento di ultima generazione ancora più sostenibile è il combustibile utilizzato per il riscaldamento idrico, e cioè l’immondizia. Se le prime centrali erano alimentate a carbone, gas o derivati dal petrolio, oggi invece in molte parti del mondo possiamo trovare delle centrali di cogenerazione o di solo teleriscaldamento vicino le discariche, dato che bruciando i rifiuti si produce calore che riscalda l’acqua, oppure vengono utilizzate le fonti rinnovabili.

La prima città a dotarsi di un sistema di teleriscaldamento in Italia è stata Brescia negli anni ’70, ed oggi molti Comuni del Centro-Nord hanno a disposizione alcuni impianti di questo tipo, finalizzati sia ad alimentare abitazioni private che edifici pubblici. Purtroppo però la diffusione di questa tecnologia non è stata rapida, e la maggior parte del Paese è ancora lontano da avere una rete dedicata.

Pro:

  • L’acqua non ha bisogno di combustibili, dunque è sicura e rende più sicure le case che non hanno bisogno di fiamme per riscaldarla;
  • Non occorre installare caldaie o canne fumarie per riscaldare l’acqua nelle abitazioni;
  • Non ci sono costi di manutenzione a carico del privato perché a questi provvede l’azienda responsabile del servizio;
  • I costi totali sono inferiori per l’utente in quanto il risparmio deriva dal mancato acquisto e manutenzione della caldaia.

Contro:

  • C’è la necessità di una rete idrica nuova, diversa da quella tradizionale, e dunque per avere una rete per il teleriscaldamento c’è bisogno di installare nuove tubazioni lungo tutta la rete che si vuol servire.

Per approfondire:

Il Teleriscaldamento si diffonde anche in Italia
Fotovoltaico e teleriscaldamento: nuovi progetti nel Comune di Modena
Brescia è la città più sostenibile d’Italia

[Fonti: Gruppo Hera; Wikipedia]

Commenti (41)

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    Allora non vedo l’ora che costruiscano un nuovo inceneritore proprio davanti casa mia.

    Ma stiamo scherzando????

    Roba da matti….

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