Cernobyl, da meta di “turismo estremo” a luogo di villeggiatura

di Redazione 44

Cernobyl, la città fantasma dell’Ucraina settentrionale, abbandonata dopo il disastro nucleare del 1986 dal prossimo mese sarà meta di turismo. La notizia mi lascia con molte perplessità e dubbi. Dopo alcune riflessioni ho pensato che forse questo è solo un modo per ridar vita in qualche modo ad una città e ad un’area, a della gente, dimenticata da tutti e anche abbandonata dopo l’esplosione della centrale nucleare. E anche un modo per far sapere, per far conoscere a quale destino l’uomo può andare incontro con il ritorno al nucleare qui in Italia, ironia a parte.

Il ministro delle Emergenze ucraino Viktor Baloga ha annunciato che il vecchio impianto di Cernobyl, finora destinato al “turismo estremo” ossia alla visita per piccoli gruppi di interesse che per poter accedere alla città fantasma dovevano richiedere un’autorizzazione governativa e pagare un tariffario tra 200 e 400 dollari, da gennaio sarà luogo di villeggiatura.

Come si legge in un articolo publicato sul New York Times qualche anno fa da un cronista americano, nel costo del viaggio erano compresi pasti e trasporti, poi piena libertà di movimento nella centrale per un giorno. L’ambiente scientifico metteva in allarme i turisti estremi solo per un’esposizione alle radiazioni continuativa. Difatti si considera letale per l’uomo un’esposizione a radiazioni comprese tra 300 e 500 rontgen l’ora. A Cernobyl nel 2005 i livelli riscontrati variavano tra 15 e un centinaio di microrontgen. Tuttavia il governo aveva imposto ulteriori precauzioni per i turisti: restare sul cemento o sull’asfalto e non camminare sulla terra nuda; non toccare nulla, ovviamente.

Oggi il complesso della centrale, situata esattamente nella cittadina di Pripjat a pochi km da Cernobyl, è moderno, attorno si rivede del verde, l’area è bonificata, la vita è ricominciata. Ricorre proprio oggi il decimo anniversario della chiusura dell’impianto: era il 15 dicembre 1986 quando a causa di errore umano esplose il reattore n.4 e di conseguenza vi furono altre esplosioni non nucleari ma di una potenza superiore fino a 100 volte Hiroshima e Nagasaki, per la contaminazione ambientale.

Le vittime di allora e quelle decedute, mutilate, emarginate negli anni successivi non si contano, le stime dicono che il numero delle vittime nel tempo potrebbe raggiungere la cifra di mezzo milione di persone e che solo dal 2065 si potrà dimenticare Cernobyl. I dati ufficiali dell’OMS e dell’Agenzia Internazionale per l’energia nucleare parlano di almeno 4.000 morti per patologie e conseguenza della fuoriuscita delle particelle radioattive. Il reattore esploso è stato incapsulato in un sarcofago che sarà sostituito da una nuova struttura di contenimento pronta per il 2015. Nel 2002, anno di inaugurazione delle visite i turisti erano pochi, poi nel 2004 hanno raggiunto il numero di 870, nel 2005 solo a giugno oltre 900. Chissà nel 2011 quanti turisti andranno in vacanza a Cernobyl?

[Fonte: Il Sole 24ore; Fantascienza]
[Foto: fantascienza; blog.libero]

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