Deforestazione

di Redazione 93

Deforestazione

Con il termine deforestazione si indica l’eliminazione illegale della vegetazione arborea in un’area boschiva. La deforestazione non va confusa con il diboscamento. Questo indica un’operazione fatta su aree limitate e in maniera legale e programmata, con finalità positive per l’ambiente. Il diboscamento serve difatti per  favorire il ricambio della vegetazione, mediante tagli stagionali delle piante vecchie o malate, o bruciate, mentre la deforestazione è mossa da ragioni che nuociono all’ambiente. Spesso sono i fini economici a determinare l’eradicazione di intere aree boschive senza che vi sia una riforestazione programmata, per costruire opere murarie, per attività agricole e, solo in piccola parte, per la vendita del legname.

La deforestazione danneggia l’ambiente e l’ecosistema perché con il taglio degli alberi viene a mancare quel perfetto equilibrio tra l’anidride carbonica e l’ossigeno presenti nell’atmosfera terrestre e si mettono in atto fenomeni quali l’effetto serra e il surriscaldamento globale causati dall’alta concentrazione di CO2,  determinata in parte anche dalla combustione fossile.

I danni causati dalla deforestazione riguardano anche da vicino i terreni nei quali vengono eradicati gli alberi: terreni aridi e secchi sono soggetti alla desertificazione, mentre le zone collinari laddove non vi sono più radici a compattare il terreno, durante le abbondanti piogge di stagione, possono essere soggetti a frane e smottamenti; l’erosione del suolo da parte dell’acqua, a sua volta inquina gli ecosistemi acquatici. Il taglio illegale ed irresponsabile delle foreste determina inoltre la riduzione dell’evapotraspirazione, ossia la diminuzione dell’umidità atmosferica con la consequente riduzione delle precipitazioni annuali. La deforestazione nel Nord della Cina ha causato una diminuzione delle piogge di un terzo, dal 1950 al 1985. Ai danni ambientali vanno aggiunti i danni economici per le popolazioni indigene, che si vedono sottratte risorse naturali, indispensabili per il loro sostentamento.

La deforestazione più nota è quella delle foreste pluviali tropicali del Sud America, come la foresta dell’Amazzonia, ma la rapidità con cui stanno scomparendo le foreste torride tropicali africane è molto più alta. Da un recente rapporto della FAO è emerso che il fenomeno ha rallentato la sua corsa nell’ultimo decennio, ma dal 2000 ad oggi sono andati persi 5,2 milioni di ettari di foresta ogni anno, per un totale di oltre 161 milioni di ettari. Il 94,1% della deforestazione avviene nelle aree tropicali del Brasile, del Congo e dell’Indonesia. Si calcola che il business che gira attorno alla deforestazione è di 150 miliardi di dollari, ogni anno. Sono state adottare diverse soluzioni per arginare il problema, a cominciare dall’agricoltura sostenibile; al sistema di gestione forestale approvato nel 1992 Rio de Janeiro nella prima conferenza mondiale con i capi di Stato sull’ambiente; al Forest Stewardship Council, un ente certificatore del legname a tutela delle foreste tropicali del Nord America e dell’Europa; ma probabilmente è necessaria un’azione politica per salvaguardare davvero le nostre foreste.

Per approfondire:

[Fonti: Wikipedia; Foreste per Sempre]

[Foto: treehugger; blog.libero; webalice]

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