Effetto serra, cibi e coltivazioni a rischio per i cambiamenti climatici

di Matteo Carriero 44

A causa dell’effetto serra e dei cambiamenti climatici determinate coltivazioni e determinati cibi e bevande risultano a rischio: vediamo quali sono le previsioni al momento e perché determinate colture risultano particolarmente minacciate a causa dei cambiamenti climatici.

 È noto che l’effetto serra e i cambiamenti climatici avranno delle conseguenze in termini di coltivazioni e quindi di cibi e bevande prodotte sul pianeta, ma quali sono più nello specifico i prodotti che potrebbero scomparire dalle nostre tavole, o comunque diventare più rari? Ecco una panoramica degli effetti che potrebbero generarsi su determinate colture.

L’Italia e la pasta: secondo alcune analisi degli esperti ONU nelle zone mediterranee e quindi anche nel nostro paese in futuro il calo dei raccolti per il frumento potrebbe essere del 20 per cento o più, il che implicherebbe costi maggiori per il prodotto e potenzialmente un maggior ricorso alle importazioni (non sempre di materie prime e prodotti lavorati di qualità).

I fagioli: le piantine di questi legumi sono piuttosto sensibili e il calore, soprattutto durante la notte, può danneggiarle determinando un calo del prodotto raccolto che, con il passare degli anni e l’avanzare dei cambiamenti climatici, potrebbe giungere anche al 25 per cento.

Le ciliegie e altri frutti con nocciolo: nei confronti di questi frutti il problema principale è correlato all’importanza del freddo per favorire l’impollinazione. In caso di clima invernale mite prolungato la fioritura potrebbe diventare più problematica, con conseguente diminuzione dei frutti prodotti dagli alberi.

L’effetto serra, il caffè e il cacao: e veniamo agli effetti dei cambiamenti climatici su due coltivazioni particolarmente care all’opinione pubblica italiana e non, ovvero il caffè e il cacao. Per quanto concerne il cacao occorre considerare che benché sia una pianta effettivamente coltivabile anche in posti molto caldi resta il fatto che una variazione di temperatura di un paio di gradi può mettere seriamente a rischio l’equilibrio della produzione in molte zone in cui al momento la coltura del cacao è fondamentale. Gli effetti potrebbero non essere dei più pesanti nei prossimi cinque anni, ma nei prossimi 35 sì. Per quanto concerne il caffè è potenzialmente a rischio la variante arabica, la cui coltivazione risentirebbe di più dell’aumento del caldo rispetto alle produzioni asiatiche, calore che in oltre favorisce la proliferazione di funghi e della cosiddetta “ruggine del caffè”.

L’effetto serra e il vino: con i cambiamenti climatici mutano delicati equilibri fondamentali per la produzione di vini di qualità. In conseguenza di ciò anche in futuro, come già è avvenuto in altre epoche e come avviene tuttora, determinate zone non saranno più adeguate a produrre determinati vini, e pertanto sorgeranno problemi non di poco conto per i produttori. Il problema non può infatti essere risolto semplicemente spostandosi più a nord, in quanto vi sono molti altri fattori da tenere in conto per la produzione di determinati vini, oltre alle temperature (composizione del terreno in primis, soleggiamento ecc.).

Come è evidente con il passare degli anni gli effetti dei mutamenti climatici si faranno sentire: se ne accorgerà anche il nostro stomaco.

Photo Credits | thebittenworld su Flickr

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