Protocollo di Kyoto, ieri si è chiuso e l’Italia rischia 300 milioni di multa

di Marco Mancini 48

Con la giornata di ieri, 16 febbraio 2012, si può dichiarare ufficialmente concluso il Protocollo di Kyoto. Per tirare le somme definitive ci vorranno mesi, ma intanto il Kyoto Club ha stilato quelle che dovrebbero essere, almeno al momento, le conclusioni molto probabili, le quali di certo non possono renderci felici. Qualche buona notizia c’è, ma l’aspetto più importante, e cioè il taglio delle emissioni, non sembra essere stato soddisfatto.

Vedremo la situazione come cambierà negli ultimi mesi, ma fino a questo momento il taglio della CO2 nel nostro Paese si è attestato a circa il 4,8% rispetto ai dati del 1990. Il limite che ci era stato assegnato era 6,5%, troppo alto dunque anche in caso di miracoloso recupero all’ultimo momento (stimato ottimisticamente al 6%). La buona notizia invece sta nella riforestazione. Se, infatti, a causa delle emissioni troppo poco ridotte rischiavamo una multa da 700 milioni di euro, questa potrebbe essere abbassata a 300 grazie alle buone politiche di riforestazione che sono state avviate nel periodo 2005-2012.

Secondo gli osservatori di Legambiente ed altre associazioni ambientaliste, non c’è da stare allegri. Se una riduzione c’è stata, questa la si deve, non solo in Italia ma un po’ in tutto il mondo, alla crisi economica che ha portato molte fabbriche a chiudere e dunque di conseguenza ha abbassato le emissioni. Tant’è che, a livello europeo, nell’ultimo anno la crisi in alcuni Paesi è stata superata e le emissioni hanno ripreso a salire, ma almeno come Europa dovremmo riuscire a rispettare i parametri, rimanendo oltre il 10% di riduzione della CO2 rispetto al 1990. Da non sottovalutare comunque l’apporto delle energie rinnovabili e del risparmio energetico che hanno sicuramente fatto la loro parte nella riduzione delle emissioni.

Ed ora cosa accade? Come dicevamo in precedenza, ci vorranno alcuni mesi per avere i dati definitivi, ma una volta ottenuti questi l’Italia andrà davanti alla Corte di Giustizia Europea per subire eventuali provvedimenti. Dopo di questi però non ci si fermerà ed anzi, bisognerà intraprendere un nuovo cammino che, secondo i limiti previsti dall’UE, dovrebbero portare la riduzione delle emissioni almeno al 20% entro il 2020 per tutti i Paesi. Se non siamo riusciti a raggiungere nemmeno il 6%, ci sarà da lavorare molto per arrivare al 20, ma 8 anni ed una maggiore consapevolezza da parte degli italiani potrebbero giocare a nostro favore.

Photo Credits | Thinkstock

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