Emergenza rifiuti a Napoli, rischi sanitari di topi e blatte

di Redazione 49

Emergenza rifiuti a Napoli: a rischiare in questi giorni, a causa dell’ennesima crisi spazzatura nel capoluogo campano, è la tenuta del Governo, per via dell’ostruzionismo della Lega sul trasporto della monnezza meridionale al Nord, è la credibilità del Ministero dell’Ambiente così come la tenuta delle promesse del neosindaco Luigi De Magistris sulla risoluzione dell’annoso problema che da tempo immemorabile angoscia periodicamente la città partenopea. A rischiare, più di tutti, però, e i danni maggiori, non all’immagine bensì al benessere fisico, sono i cittadini che ci vivono nei rifiuti. Qualche giorno fa abbiamo raccolto il monito lanciato dalla Federazione italiana dei medici pediatri (Fimp) sulle conseguenze dei roghi sulla salute dei più piccoli, costretti a respirare diossina con un aumento correlato di disturbi respiratori. Anche senza roghi, però, i rischi in gioco non sono certo risibili. Ce li illustra l’ANID, l’associazione delle imprese italiane di disinfestazione.

Gli esperti spiegano che i sacchi di rifiuti fungono da erogatori alimentari per cani e gatti randagi, colombi, gabbiani e soprattutto topi. Il ratto grigio delle fogne si riproduce fino a sette volte in un anno, dando alla luce ogni volta dai 3 ai 15 cuccioli. Può rendersi portatore di numerosi agenti patogeni e trasmettere all’uomo numerose malattie dal decorso anche fatale.

  • La Borreliosi di Lyme, patologia scatenata dal batterio spirocheta Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato che provoca dolori agli arti, meningiti, miocarditi ed eritemi migranti multipli.
  • La Leptospirosi o malattia di Weil, alla cui origine c’è il batterio Leptospira. All’uomo si trasmette per mezzo dell’urina degli animali contagiati o ancora della puntura di zecche che hanno a loro volta intaccato i roditori infetti. I sintomi sono febbre, congiuntivite, itterizia, nausea, vomito, debolezza, emorragie del tratto intestinale, disturbi alla funzionalità renale, dolori muscolari. Può portare anche alla morte se non trattata tempestivamente.
  • la Salmonellosi, una zoonosi scatenata dal batterio Salmonella enteridis. Causa vomito, diarrea, febbre ed infezioni gastroenteriche. L’uomo è a rischio se consuma acqua e cibi che sono stati contaminati dai roditori o se ingerisce uova e carni infette non cotte adeguatamente.

L’ANID spiega che i roditori veicolano non solo malattie batteriche ma anche virali come

encefalite da zecche, encefalite equina venezuelana, sindromi da arenavirus e hantavirus, vaiolo bovino, rickettsiosi (tifo murino, febbre bottonosa mediterranea, ehrlichiosi granulocitica umana), malattie causate da protozoi (toxoplasmosi, leishmaniosi, babesiosi, morbo di Chagas, criptosporidiosi, giardiasi) e di infezioni di elminti (schistosomiasi, angiostrongilosi, echinococcosi alveolare).

Sulla salute pubblica napoletana pendono anche gli enterobatteri e le salmonelle veicolate dalle blatte, scarafaggi che si nutrono di materia organica in putrefazione:

Oltre a veicolare microbi col corpo, con le zampette spinose e con le lunghe antenne, li dissemina nell’ambiente attraverso le deiezioni e rigurgiti. Il loro materiale fecale, così come i peli e la cuticola, sono fonti di allergie e malattie asmatiche per molte persone.

Per scongiurare i rischi, spiega l’ANID, bisognerebbe neubulizzare sui cumuli insetticidi e larvicidi. Inoltre alleviare il disagio dei cittadini diminuendo le esalazioni con prodotti specifici che riescano ad inibire i processi di fermentazione.

[Fonte: ANID]

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