La seconda vita della plastica: visita a Montello, uno stabilimento per il recupero e il riciclo degli imballaggi

di missunderstanding 54

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Ecologiae è entrata per voi lettori nello stabilimento di Montello, il più grande in Italia e tra i più grandi d’Europa, per spiegarvi cosa succede alla plastica dopo che viene conferita negli appositi contenitori per la raccolta differenziata da parte dei cittadini. Montello è un’azienda convenzionata con CONAI, il consorzio che presiede il processo di recupero e riciclo degli imballaggi in Italia.

Inutile differenziare perché poi finisce tutto insieme?

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Non è vero nella maggior parte dei casi che i rifiuti vengono mischiati, anche se la situazione cambia da regione a regione, e noi vi mostriamo le prove di quello che succede alla raccolta differenziata della Lombardia sacchetto dopo sacchetto, bottiglia dopo bottiglia con un reportage dedicato ad uno dei più grossi stabilimenti che si occupa di raccolta, recupero e riciclo degli imballaggi in plastica. Il CONAI rappresenta, infatti, per i cittadini la garanzia che i materiali provenienti dalla raccolta differenziata trovino pieno utilizzo attraverso corretti processi di recupero e riciclo.

Cosa succede dopo la divisione dei materiali da parte dei cittadini?
Il comune si occupa della raccolta differenziata, i consorzi di gestire e vigilare sui processi di recupero della plastica e di riciclo. Lo stabilimento di Montello, ad esempio, è uno stabilimento che si occupa di recupero della plastica, consegnando poi la plastica recuperata al COREPLA, ma si occupa anche di riciclo per alcuni tipologie di contenitori in plastica.

Il signor Sancinelli di Montello spa, ci accompagna in questo percorso tra sacchetti di plastica, bottiglie di colori diversi, contenitori per detersivi e shampoo, coriandoli di plastica riciclata che diventano materia prima.

Dal’Area di ricevimento all’analisi: i rifiuti di plastica vengono consegnati, analizzati e divisi

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Nell’area di ricevimento le balle di rifiuti arrivano sciolte o imballate: sciolte se provengono dalla provincia di Bergamo, imballate se provenienti da altre province della Lombardia. Lo stabilimento di Montello riceve quasi il 60% della raccolta differenziata della plastica di tutta la Lombardia.

Come si fa a capire la qualità della differenziata? Più bottiglie contiene un cumulo di rifiuti, più è buona la raccolta.

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I rifiuti entrano nelle prime macchine dell’impianto e vengono divisi in sacchetti e rifiuti da imballaggio rigido. I rifiuti rigidi continuano il percorso tra le macchine, i sacchetti vengono trasformati in css.

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I rifiuti che continuano il percorso verso il recupero passano attraverso diversi tipi di computer che ne analizzano polimeri e colori, mentre le macchine li smistano alla velocità di 3metri al secondo. Di tutta la plastica che entra nel percorso, il 75% viene riciclato, il 25% diverrà combustibile.

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Dal passaggio tra le macchine i materiali vengono ulteriormente ripuliti, privati di tutte le parti ferrose e/ metalliche che potrebbero essere finite nella raccolta differenziata.

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Area dei prodotti selezionati: il colore ed il valore della plastica riciclata: azzurro chiaro, floreale e incolore

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I cumuli di plastica recuperata vengono divisi per colore: bottiglie di pet, bottiglie di colore misto e bottiglie più scure. I contenitori opachi hanno minor valore, le bottiglie chiare hanno il valore più alto in assoluto e sono dette clear. La plastica, così recuperata e divisa, ritorna al COREPLA, che una volta al mese la mese la mette all’asta. La plastica proveniente dai comuni appartiene al Corepla, per il quale Montello svolge attività di recupero.

Cosa succede dopo l’acquisto della plastica recuperata?

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Se la plastica non viene acquistata, viene destinata alla termovalorizzazione da parte di Corepla. Quando viene acquistata, in base alle sue caratteristiche, viene riciclata e diventa una materia prima.

Il riciclo del floreale

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La plastica che viene recuperata è destinata ad essere il materiale base per nuovi manufatti: viene triturata, poi entra in una turbolavatrice, per poi ripassare un un vasca di risciacquo, poi in centrifuga, fino ad essere asciugata. Dopodiché viene fusa a circa 220 gradi, infine viene filtrata per togliete impurità minime, prima di essere tagliata in piccolissime chips. Le chips diventano materiale per vasi e forme di plastica o materiale destinato a mercato dell’automobile.

Il riciclo del misto: contenitori di detergenti e shampoo

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Con i contenitori di shampoo e detersivi si fanno le scaglie di hpde, una materia prima da riciclo che verrà ritrasformata in flaconi per detergenti e tubi, o in pannelli per fondamenta che riparano dall’umidità, come fa Montello.

Il riciclo del pet

Le bottiglie chiare sono il più pregiato tra i materiali di riciclo, e passano attraverso un processo complesso: prima lavaggio a 90 gradi, poi le bottiglie vengono macinate ed infine ripassano in un altro lavaggio al quale segue un risciacquo. Successivamente, il materiale entra nel mulino, viene rilavato, risciacquato, prima di passare ad una successiva analisi per il controllo di impurità minime.

Il pet chiaro viene destinato a contenitori per gli alimenti solo nella parte esterna, mentre la parte che viene a contatto con gli alimenti è fatta di plastiche vergini. Il pet chiaro, dopo un trattamento, può anche essere ri-destinato alle bottiglie di plastica, fino al 50% della composizione totale.

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Il 25% della plastica recuperata: la lavorazione del CSS

Le plastiche che non possono essere riciclate, vengono nuovamente lavate e private delle plastiche clorurate, del pvc, e di tutto ciò che produce diossina. Le plastiche vengono provate dei metalli e di altri elementi che non possono essere contenuti nel css. Dopodiché vengono macinate per uscire sotto forma di piccole scaglie, destinate al termovalorizzatore in sostituzione del combustibile fossile.

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