Come vivere senza aria condizionata: la casa-alveare siriana

di Redazione 47

casa alveare siriana

Le case in Occidente si assomigliano tutte, sono altamente tecnologiche anche dove si potrebbe fare a meno, e cioè nella ventilazione. Ma prima dei termostati, come facevano le persone a non morire di caldo/freddo? Il sito internet parla delle case-alveare siriane. Ma a guardarle bene assomigliano, e hanno una struttura simile, ai trulli di Alberobello.

Progettato per il clima del deserto, l’alveare mantiene il calore grazie allo spessore delle pareti fatte di mattoni di fango, i quali sono ottimi anche per intrappolare il freddo. L’alta cupola delle case serve a raccogliere l’aria calda, che si sposta durante la notte nella parte inferiore della casa. All’interno, la sua alta cupola serve a raccogliere l’aria ancora più calda, e lascia scivolare la pioggia prima che il mattone l’assorba e crolli. Il suo spessore è un ottimo scambiatore di calore a bassa velocità, e mantiene la temperatura interna tra 85  e 75 ° F (24-29 gradi Celsius), mentre al di fuori si passa, da mezzogiorno a mezzanotte, dai 140 a 60 ° F. (da 60 a 15 Celsius).

Saudi Aramco World fornisce maggiori dettagli:

La limitata scelta di metodi e materiali da costruzione che si trovano solo in quei territori, consente poche alternative. Quelle case dovevano resistere alle sollecitazioni meccaniche della pressione del vento e le meno frequenti scosse di terremoto che affliggono la regione. Le aperture per porte e finestre dovevano essere poche e piccole per ridurre al minimo il riverbero del sole e l’ingresso dell’aria calda durante il giorno, nonché dell’aria fredda durante la notte. E hanno dovuto avere un tetto che consente un alta capacità di assorbimento del calore durante il giorno, e che lentamente lo rilasci durante la notte. Il tetto, inoltre, deve avere una superficie continua per fornire un massimo di ombra con un minimo di superficie esposta al sole, e dovrebbe avere pendio ripido contro le occasionali piogge torrenziali.

La casa-alveare è la risposta, e nessun computer potrebbe migliorarla. La sua forma conica non presenta quasi alcuna difficoltà strutturale, non richiede rinforzi, e può essere costruita rapidamente. E poi sarebbe in grado di raggiungere l’obiettivo che tutti gli architetti del mondo ricercano: unire funzionalismo con semplicità, eleganza e bellezza. In Italia abbiamo qualche esempio, ma forse sarebbe meglio espanderlo anche oltre i confini regionali.

Fonte: [Treehugger]

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