Incentivi a chi va a lavoro in bicicletta, Milano guarda al modello francese

di Michele Costanzo 48

lavoro in bicicletta
In un periodo in cui l’emergenza smog ha costretto a più riprese molte città italiana a porre limitazioni alla circolazione dei veicoli a motore, riprendono quota i modelli di mobilità sostenibile. La bicicletta, mezzo ecologico per definizione, è al centro di alcuni interessanti esperimenti che partiti dalla Francia nello scorso autunno potrebbero trovare spazio anche in Italia. In particolare l’introduzione di incentivi per chi va a lavoro in bicicletta rappresenta una misura innovativa che vorrebbe incentivare l’uso della bici come alternativa all’auto mettendo sul tavolo una contropartita economica.

A lavoro in bicicletta, gli incentivi francesi

Nello scorso anno nell’Assemblee Nationale di Francia si è lungamente discusso dell’introduzione di un incentivo economico per chi si reca a lavoro in bicicletta secondo una analogia con le misure che già premiano l’uso dei mezzi pubblici. La versione finale della norma approvata a fine novembre ha ridimensionato un po’ gli entusiasmi iniziali limitando l’importo massimo dell’incentivo e lasciando piena libertà ai datori di lavoro sull’adozione di questo sistema. Resta tuttavia inalterata l’innovazione del provvedimento che punta a rendere appetibile per i cittadini il ricorso alla bicicletta per il classico tragitto casa – lavoro. Una misura che in generale riguarda tutta la Francia ma che ha la il suo cuore nella grande area metropolitana di Parigi dove mezzi pubblici, metropolitana e sistemi di mobilità ecologica sono necessari anche per contrastare l’inquinamento atmosferico.

Il modello francese fissa in 200 euro annui il tetto massimo che ogni lavoratore può ottenere sotto forma di incentivo se decide di andare lavoro in bicicletta. Una cifra evidentemente inferiore alle prime ipotesi circolate ma che si somma ad altri vantaggi non ultimo il risparmio per le spese di carburante. I datori di lavoro possono aderire su base volontaria a questo modello che rientra nel più ampio quadro della normativa francese che prevede il contributo dei datori di lavoro alle spese di viaggio dei dipendenti.

Incentivi alla bicicletta, ci pensa anche Milano

Il modello francese potrebbe essere ripreso anche in Italia con la città di Milano in prima fila. In assenza di una norma nazionale, l’Amministrazione comunale di Milano potrebbe intervenire sulla materia in maniera diretta come spiega un articolo de La Repubblica. In particolare Pierfrancesco Maran, assessore alla Mobilità e Ambiente del Comune di Milano, ha confermato che dell’introduzione di incentivi per chi va a lavoro in bicicletta si è già discusso e che si attende ora la pubblicazione di un bando del Ministero dell’Ambiente per finanziare il progetto. Il capoluogo lombardo anche per le caratteristiche del proprio territorio potrebbe essere un laboratorio ideale per la sperimentazione di questo nuovo modello.

Milano è tra le città italiane che in questo inverno sta registrando i maggiori problemi di inquinamento dell’aria specie per le alte concentrazioni di polveri sottili (PM10). L’emergenza è stata affrontata con limitazioni alla circolazione degli autoveicoli ed al riscaldamento degli edifici. In una visione di più lungo periodo Milano come altre città esposte al problema intende sviluppare piani di mobilità sostenibile che includono interventi sul trasporto pubblico. Gli incentivi alla bicicletta potrebbero rientrare in questo quadro più ampio premiando un comportamento virtuoso.

Dal Ministero dell’Ambiente 35 milioni

Il progetto della città di Milano fa riferimento per gli aspetti economici al così detto ‘Collegato Ambientale’, una norma che mette a disposizione nuove risorse a sostegno dell’economia verde. In tema di mobilità sostenibile viene istituito un fondo di 35 milioni di euro utilizzabile in programmi di sostegno agli spostamenti tra casa e lavoro o tra casa e scuola.

Come ha spiegato Gian Luca Galletti, ministro dell’Ambiente, il provvedimento è coerente con gli impegni che l’Italia si è assunta alla recente conferenza sui cambiamenti climatici di Parigi (COP21). Oltre ai fondi per la mobilità sostenibile, sono stanziate nuove risorse per il contrasto al rischio idrogeologico, la bonifica dall’amianto e le aree marine. Con l’introduzione del green public procurement vengono inoltre definiti una serie di criteri ‘eco-compatibili’ a cui dovranno adeguarsi le amministrazioni dello Stato in tema di acquisti.

A lavoro in bicicletta, non solo incentivi

Le misure di incentivazione economica per chi si reca a lavoro in bicicletta potrebbero essere una buona misura per migliorare la qualità dell’aria nelle nostre città. A patto ovviamente che non si tratti di una misura isola ma venga inquadrata in un più ampio programma di mobilità sostenibile. Oltre al contributo economico infatti è indispensabile che le strutture a supporto dei ciclisti siano ampliate e adeguate alle esigenze. Dalle corsie privilegiate per le piste ciclabili alle aree attrezzate per la sosta delle bici sino ad un programma di integrazione delle biciclette con la rete del trasporto pubblico, sono tutti aspetti che potrebbero positivamente incidere sulla diffusione dell’iniziativa. Un quadro a cui oltre che utenti ed amministrazioni sarà quindi chiamata a collaborare anche l’iniziativa privata.

Photo | Thinkstock

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