Inquinamento del suolo

di Serena Savelli 55

Inquinamento del suolo

L’inquinamento del suolo è un fenomeno di alterazione della composizione chimica naturale del terreno, dovuto all’attività antropica, che si verifica a carico della soluzione circolante e della frazione minerale del terreno e che reca gravi scompensi alla pedofauna che lo abita e che effettua la rimineralizzazione della sostanza organica chiudendo il ciclo del carbonio.

Il fenomeno è meno conosciuto, meno evidente ed anche meno studiato rispetto all’inquinamento delle acque e dell’aria per varie cause. Prima tra tutte è la minore immediatezza degli effetti che l’inquinamento del suolo ha sull’uomo rispetto agli effetti prontamente tangibili dell’inquinamento atmosferico e delle acque. Inoltre la pedologia è una scienza relativamente più giovane delle scienze che studiano l’atmosfera e i corpi idrici.

Fra le cause principali di inquinamento a livello del suolo si annoverano:

  • l’immissione in esso di rifiuti non biodegradabili (discariche abusive o discariche mal isolate dal suolo circostante)
  • acque di scarico delle industrie e degli stabilimenti zootecnici
  • utilizzo agricolo di prodotti fitosanitari di origine chimica (pesticidi, fertilizzanti)
  • contaminazione da idrocarburi
  • contaminazione da diossina
  • contaminazione da metalli pesanti (molto tossici per le piante che li stoccano nei propri tessuti immettendoli poi nelle catene alimentari)
  • contaminazione da solventi organici (reflui zootecnici)

Questo tipo di inquinamento altera profondamente l’equilibrio chimico-fisico e biologico dell’ecosistema complesso che vive nel suolo, lo impoverisce della sostanza organica, nei casi più gravi uccide la microfauna che lo abita e le specie vegetali che su di esso radicano con gravi ripercussioni sulla fertilità, sulla biodiversità e sul funzionamento delle catene trofiche e predisponendo il suolo stesso all’erosione per alterazione della struttura fisica degli agglomerati minerali come di quella dovuta alla distruzione della copertura vegetale che normalmente lo protegge.

Gli inquinanti, diluiti nella soluzione circolante che occupa le cavità del terreno, si muovono in ogni direzione: per capillarità, per gravità e per differenza di potenziale sino a raggiungere le falde sotterranee. In tal caso gli effetti sono immediati e constano di pericolose alterazioni nelle acque potabili con gravi fattori di rischio per la salute umana.

Per approfondire:

OGM, insetticidi transgenici potrebbero contaminare corsi d’acqua

Energia pulita da terreni contaminati da scorie tossiche

Fitorimediazione: la nuova tecnica “verde” per ridurre l’inquinamento

ISPRA: Difesa del suolo – Strategia Europea

Allarme Ispra sulla qualità del suolo Italiano

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