Erosione e cemento minacciano le coste italiane

di Michele Costanzo 48

Il Rapporto Ambiente Italia 2016 di Legambiente evidenzia dati preoccupati sul consumo del suolo e sull'erosione costiera. Con il progetto pubblico Soil Monitor nasce un nuovo strumento per il controllo del territorio.

Erosione
Una Italia che fatica a proteggere le proprie coste dall’erosione e dalla cementificazione. Ma anche un quadro normativo incerto che negli anni non è riuscito a regolamentare efficacemente il tema del consumo del suolo. Ed ancora un territorio che rischia di trovarsi impreparato ad affrontare gli effetti del cambiamento climatico e del riscaldamento globale. Sono questi alcuni dei temi portanti del “Rapporto Ambiente Italia 2016 Presente e futuro delle aree costiere in Italia” di Legambiente curato da Zanchini Edoardo, Zampetti Giorgio, Venneri Sebastiano e edito da Edizioni Ambiente.

Erosione, cemento e ed inquinamento

Il filo conduttore che caratterizza il Rapporto Ambiente Italia 2016 è l’ambiente costiero inteso come specchio di una società forse ancora troppo poco interessata alla tutela del territorio. Un viaggio dalle cifre spesso preoccupanti realizzato attraverso una serie di contributi che guardano ai litorali italiani da una ventaglio di prospettive differenti.

Dall’erosione costiera che continua a sottrarre superficie alle nostre spiagge alla cementificazione spesso abusiva del territorio costiero; dall’inquinamento delle spiagge ai troppi scarichi ancora privi di depuratori; dagli effetti imprevedibili di fenomeni meteorologici sempre più intensi alle problematiche specifiche delle piccole isole. Ma anche modelli possibili per una gestione più attenta dei litorali che vanno dalle aree marine protette, agli esempi virtuosi di gestione delle coste, fino ad un turismo più maturo e responsabile. Gli spunti ed i percorsi del rapporto sono davvero molteplici ed offrono al lettore una panoramica completa di una parte così importante del territorio italiano.

I numeri del rapporto di Legambiente

Le molte cifre contenute nel rapporto di Legambiente sono forse lo strumento più efficace per rendere chiaramente lo stato del nostro territorio costiero. Ecco alcuni dei numeri illustrati durante la presentazione dell’opera:

  • Il 51% dei litorali italiani ha subito trasformazioni per far spazio a case, palazzi ed altri immobili. Legambiente ha analizzato 6.477 km di costa tra Ventimiglia e Trieste passando per le isole maggiori ed ha rilevato ben 3.291 km trasformati in modo irreversibile. Industrie, porti ed infrastrutture hanno occupato qualcosa come 719,4 km mentre altri 918,3 km sono stati occupati dall’espansione urbana. 1.653,3 km pari a circa un quarto dell’intera linea di costa è occupato dai così detti insediamenti a bassa densità rappresentati da ville ed altre abitazioni isolate.
  • Sicilia, Calabria e Puglia sono le regioni con la più alta urbanizzazione delle coste mentre la Sardegna è in questo senso la regione più virtuosa.
  • Il processo di trasformazione delle coste è in parte dovuto ad un sistema di leggi non sempre efficace. Nonostante le previsioni della legge Galasso che tutela la fascia costiera entro i 300 metri, dal 1988 sono stati oggetto di trasformazioni ulteriori 220 km di costa, con una media di 8 km ogni anno ovvero 25 metri ogni giorno.
  • Dati ISTAT mostrano inoltre che nel decennio dal 2001 al 2011 nelle aree costiere sono sorti 18 mila nuovi edifici. Punte di 700 edifici a chilometro quadrato sono stati raggiunte in Sicilia ed in Puglia, 600 in Calabria.
  • Non è però solo la cementificazione a minacciare l’ambiente costiero italiano. L’inquinamento delle acque costiere per effetto della mancata o carente depurazione è un problema diffuso. Una procedura europea del 2015 ha individuato 1.022 agglomerati non conformi alle norme comunitarie sulla depurazione degli scarichi civili, circa il 32 del totale.
  • Nel solo 2014 sono state accertate 14.542 infrazioni a danno delle coste o del mare, una media di 40 al giorno, due per ogni chilometro di costa. Proprio l’inquinamento è la tipologia di infrazione più frequente (31% dei casi).
  • All’inefficacia della depurazione, ad una non corretta gestione dei rifiuti a talvolta anche al poco senso civico è dovuto anche il fenomeno della spazzatura presente sulle spiagge. Un fenomeno che proprio Legambiente ha illustrato di recente nel rapporto Beach Litter 2016.
  • Una costante minaccia per le spiagge italiane è rappresentata anche dall’erosione. Fenomeni erosivi in espansione riguardano un terzo delle spiagge e sono spesso alimentati anche dall’attività umana. Dighe, sbarramenti e cave hanno ridotto l’apporto solido dei fiumi sulle spiagge favorendo l’avanzamento dell’erosione.
  • Ci sono poi fortunatamente anche i numeri positivi e gli esempi virtuosi a cominciare dalle 32 aree protette nazionali che individuano una superficie di 2,8 milioni di ettari a tutela del mare e della costa. Ne fanno parte 27 aree marine protette, 2 parchi marini sommersi, 2 perimetrazioni a mare nei parchi nazionali ed un santuario internazionale per la tutela dei mammiferi marini. Modelli positivi che associano la tutela dell’ambiente e della biodiversità con il turismo ragionato, l’agroalimentare di qualità e la valorizzazione del territorio.

Il progetto Soil Monitor

In tema di consumo del solo è di questi giorni anche la presentazione del progetto Soil Monitor sviluppato da Crisp (Università di Napoli Federico II e Cnr) con Ispra, Geosolutions ed Istituto Nazionale di Urbanistica. Disponibile all’indirizzo www.soilmonitor.it, Soil Monitor permette di selezionare una porzione di territorio ed ottenere informazioni dettagliate sul consumo del suolo inerenti ad esempio la natura degli interventi umani o la loro evoluzione temporale. Uno strumento prezioso per la pianificazione territoriale e lo studio storico.

Il 13 luglio è il SoilDay

I temi dell’uso del suolo, dell’erosione delle coste e della tutela del territorio sono al centro dell’iniziativa “Una giornata per il suolo – SoilDay” in programma per il prossimo 13 luglio. Organizzato dall’ISPRA assieme a varie istituzioni ed organizzazioni, il SoilDay prevede un ricco programma di eventi e dibattiti. Tutti i dettagli sono disponibili sul sito ISPRA.

Photo | M.C.

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