Mar Mediterraneo, foca monaca, capodoglio e delfino a rischio

di Matteo Carriero 58

Un nuovo studio dell’Unione mondiale per la conservazione della natura conferma il grave rischio d’estinzione nelle acque del Mar Mediterraneo per le specie foca monaca, capodoglio e delfino comune. Non si registrano, purtroppo, miglioramenti nelle condizioni di queste specie, a causa della mancanza di rigorose leggi e di forti iniziative volte alla loro protezione.

Allo studio dell’IUCN ha collaborato anche l’italiano Istituto Tethys. Riguardo alle condizioni in cui versa la popolazione mediterranea di foche monache, ridotta a un numero compreso tra i 350 e i 450 individui, Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, presidente dell’istituto Tethys, ha dichiarato:

Da più di quindici anni la foca monaca è nelle stesse condizioni: è una brutta notizia perché non dà segni di recupero, ma la buona notizia è che rimane stabile, anche se ad un livello molto basso. Questo è il segnale che se i governi della regione cominciassero ad attuare misure serie di protezione, la specie potrebbe riprendersi, invece non stanno facendo nulla.

Come ha spiegato Notarbartolo la foca monaca viene ancora uccisa dai pescatori perché percepita come un concorrente per i pochi pesci rimasti nelle nostre acque. Il livello del rischio di estinzione per questa specie è considerato critico. I capodogli sono solo leggermente meno a rischio delle foche. Come sottolinea l’esperto

È in pericolo perché va a finire nelle reti pelagiche derivanti usate per la pesca del tonno e del pescespada. Ancora utilizzate in Sud Italia, Marocco e Turchia, anche se da undici anni sono fuorilegge, risultano devastanti per il capodoglio, che facilmente rimane intrappolato.

Non presenta miglioramenti degni di nota, purtroppo, nemmeno la condizione dei delfini comuni, che come spiega il presidente dell’IUCN soffre gravemente del sovrasfruttamento delle risorse ittiche nel Mediterraneo.

È scomparso dal suo areale e resiste nel Mare di Alboran fra la Spagna e il Marocco, alcune zone del Tirreno, lo Stretto di Sicilia, l’Egeo e il Mar di Levante, di fronte alle coste di Israele. Nella Grecia ionica, ad esempio a Mityka, una volta si faceva la festa della sardina. Ora sono state pescate tutte e la sagra si fa con orate da allevamento. I delfini che erano lì se ne sono andati.

Photo Credits | ghost-in-the-shell su Flickr

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